Trees for Life,

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Informative especially the very names of these constructs and their meaning. If a teenager he compares the well-known pop idols of youth over who are "sitting on the needle," and who is "already tied", then there is no doubt that he was somehow involved in the drug world. That is, the test constructs is more subtle and indirect diagnostic tool than the questionnaire containing straight, "head-on" questions. Known examples of successful application of the test for detection of latent constructs unlawful trends. The fact that the structure of consciousness illegal teen concepts designating the legal world and the world of criminal phenomena indicating, separated by a hard - they are separated on opposite poles of the semantic space. In order to build a semantic space based on the results of the test constructs, it is necessary to use certain computer programs. Unlike SD constructs can not be attributed to the pre-defined global factors, as they are simply unknown. Therefore it is necessary to subject these results to factor analysis. Initial test data constructs are of the form table (also called a matrix or grid) in the lines - constructs a column - objects in table cells - evaluation, test data. Using factor analysis of each of these matrices can be identified factors constructs, combined with each other on semantic similarity. Today in Russia there are already specialized programs to quickly build a semantic space on constructs. It is already mentioned in 2.2 expansionist program and more specialized program KELLEY, which allows for the comparison triples directly on the computer. The program also covers the scientific KELLY by "Human Technology" (the name of the new version of the program - DESIGNER). Psychodiagnostic value in the test constructs is not only the content of the constructs and factors, but also the number of independent factors (the dimension of the semantic space). Generally, it refers to the level of differentiation, the development of concepts in the area of ??the test, which was conducted to test constructs. Repeatedly shown that for those who are fond of, let's say in sports, there are more independent, not reducible to each other constructs, especially in the area of ??sport, and for those who are fond of computers - in this area. The procedure constructs are often also referred to as "repertory grid technique." This refers to a technique where the list is uniquely named objects, too, is given to the subject, and is only given a list of instructions on how to pick up the objects. These instructions are called "repertoire." The test, for example, he picks on people known to him as a "man who can be trusted," "the most successful of the familiar", "the most unfortunate of friends," etc. Many psychologists see the main power and pathos of this approach is that the detection range of people, objects and events that are important to the subject himself, which he describes in his own language, can get not only a valuable structural information, but above all provide invaluable asset to reduce distance in an advisory dialogue, as after that the dialogue is in a language understandable to the subject himself on him and important things for him. Ranking One of the many modifications of the techniques presented scaling techniques ranging. In this case, the subject is given a list of words or names of deployed objects (or graphic stimuli), and its object is to arrange them in order of decreasing (or increasing) of some trait. Probably the most famous implementation of this technique is a test of the "color preference" Luscher, when the subject lays on the table 6 colored cards - by "like - not like it." Very often with the help of a technician scaling measured self-esteem. This technique, in particular, was widely used by the famous American psychotherapist Carl Rogers-a humanist. Initially, the test ranks the list of qualities by how they describe it himself: "I have seen - I have not seen." Then, the test ranks these same qualities in their expression in the "ideal man." Processing of the results is to calculate the rank correlation between the two rankings. The content is the same logic as in the comparison of semantic profiles diabetes. Rogers showed that nevrotizirovannoy personality there is a "rejection of the self-image" - a sharp contrast between the ideal and the reality. Such intolerance to themselves at the teenager, who characterized the maximalist "self-concept" - a source of internal conflict, which often erupts in external broaching reactions. Ranking can be not only a verbal name of personality traits, but also graphics. For example, the KISS method (Sokolov, Fedotov, 1982) instead of verbal designations used schematic representations of different persons. When the number of instructions (Rank, according to the similarity with his father, mother, etc.) increases, we get again the rank array (matrix) of constructs that should be handled already on your computer - to "scoop" out of it all the most valuable information. Pairwise comparisons and sorting Distinguish pairwise comparisons of preference and similarity. In the first case we are dealing with more time-consuming and reliable option ranking tool. The difference is that when the test compares each pair of objects - each with each, there is a possibility of more valuable information - about the contradictions in the system preferences. This is the so-called "non-transitive triples." For example, the subject prefers red to blue, blue - green and green for some reason puts up red. The circle is complete. These data can be very valuable in the Vocational counseling, when the choice comes from a small circle really available and discussed in high school careers. With a large number of objects method of paired comparisons is too laborious and time-consuming. For example, at 10 facilities must perform 9 • 5 = 45 comparisons, and it is still doable, and at 20 for 19 • 10 = 190, and it's very difficult because of the great monotony of this job. Most of contradictions (for nontransitive triples) are different subjective criteria of comparison, different personal constructs. Used to identify them, except for the above comparison for triples, paired comparison based on similarity. For each pair of objects of the subject makes a judgment about how they look like or similar. Is a matrix N • N, which is then processed by a variety of computer methods, and objects are automatically placed in the semantic space. Following the interpretation of the problem arises of the space coordinates. Best of all, when it is solved in dialogue with the subject himself, it is an excellent material for deepening mutual understanding and contact with the subject. The degenerate case of paired comparisons of the similarity - the technique of sorting. Here each pair of objects subject associates actually one of the two possible points of similarity - "like" or "unlike" because all similar objects in the test puts one class. The technique allows to reach a much larger objects, as more economical. It can be 80-100 names of occupations (in Vocational counseling), celebrities (actors, athletes, politicians, scientists), etc. It is shown that the greater the number of classes into which sorts the test objects, the more extensive and differentiated is the internal system of concepts of the subject, as well as more analytical, it is the so-called "cognitive style." Sorting technique particularly useful when COGNITIVE DIAGNOSIS - to study the level of formation of the system of concepts in a scientific or professional field of expertise. For this we must offer the first to perform this procedure expert - a specialist in the field, and then the results of the student's results are compared with reference specialist. As a result, you can quickly figure out where in the student's head was left messes. A certain kind of paired comparisons is. In this case, the subject was first called the most important events of your life in the past and expected future events, and then for each pair of events estimates the presence of a "causal" relationships (causal relations). There is a causal graphical diagram showing the basic "life line", their possible weave, contradictions minds. Technique is very useful as an aid in the work of the consultant for the design careers (professional counselors). Its implementation is facilitated by the presence of a computer program «LifeLine»: the computer itself makes the subject all pairs of events for the assessment and builds itself a causal graph on the display screen. *** In concluding this section, we repeat once again that the majority of scaling techniques require more skill performer than the standard tests. But some of them may be used for mass testing of students teachers, working under the guidance of the school psychologist. Key terms: graphic scaling, semantic differential, semantic profile, semantic space, the test constructs, repertory grids, ranking, paired comparisons, kauzometriya.
Tree and shrub pile at LaBagh Woods, Chicago
Unattended burn pile of hot ashes off of the bike path in Miami Woods 10-1-2010. Signage illustrated to the left is visible in front of the embers.
Trees cut down to expand the Miami Woods prairie.
Unattended burn pile of hot embers visible from Waukegan Road, Miami Woods, Morton Grove 4-22-07, 9 pm
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